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The Science Of Hydration

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== Hyponatremia ==
[[Hyponatremia]] is where the sodium (salt) levels becomes too dilute. Initial symptoms tend to be a gain in weight and a general swelling and 'puffiness', most noticeable in the hands. More severe symptoms are caused by a swelling of the brain (cerebral edema) including nausea, vomiting, headache and malaise <ref name="ref10"/>.
== HypERnatremia - the opposite of HypOnatremia ==
Generally, Hypernatremia (too much sodium in the blood) seems to be a result of dehydration rather than excessive salt intake <ref name="ref17"/>. It should be noted that taking [[Electrolyte Capsules]] bypasses the body's taste. This sense of taste seems to reflect our body's internal sensors; our desire for salty foods reflects our salt requirements.
== Salt and High Blood Pressure ==
If you have high blood pressure, you may need to be careful with your salt intake. There is evidence that increased salt intake can increase blood pressure <ref name="ref4"/>. If , and the common recommendation is to restrict your salt intake if you have high blood pressure, discuss these issues with your doctor. If your doctor is not an athleteHowever, I would highly recommend changing to one a recent study<ref name="JAMA"/> has shown that is. If you don't know what reducing your salt intake may increase your blood pressure is, get risk of a heart attack rather than lower it checked. (For more on the health risks of low salt diets see  As an aside, if you have low blood pressure, which I do, increasing your salt intake can really help.)
== Caffeine and Alcohol ==
The scientific evidence shows that caffeine is generally not a diuretic <ref name="ref5"/><ref name="ref14"/><ref name="ref15"/>. Previous studies have shown that if you don't normally take caffeine and then get a large dose, there is some diuretic effect. However normal intakes of caffeine by non-users and use by regular users is not a diuretic <ref name="ref16"/>. (If you urinate more because you drink a 20oz Latte, it is because of the 20oz of fluid, not the caffeine.)
Alcohol is another story; drinking anything stronger than 2% will cause dehydration. Because alcohol takes 36 hours to clear the body, it should be avoided for 48 hours before you wish to avoid impaired performance<ref name="ref5"/>.
== Cramps ==
The evidence for hydration and electrolyte status causing [[Cramps]] is somewhat ambiguous, but supplementing your electrolyte intake may help.
== Blisters and black toe nails ==
Dehydration reduces body weight, which can reduce the size of your feet. This in turn changes the fit of your shoes, causing blisters. Hyponatremia can cause swelling, which increases the size of your feet and can cause blisters. Both conditions can also increase the chance of black toe nails.
==Water in the Body<ref name="CLINC"/>==
Approximately 60% of the human body weight is water, though this varies primarily with body fat as adipose (fat) tissue contains a lower percentage of water. Total Body Water (TBW) can be divided up into
| Eyes||Normal||Sunken||Very Sunken
== References ==
<ref name="ref5">Caffeine dehydration : Caffeine and alcohol - just how dehydrating are they?
<ref name="ref6">Muscle Cramps : No link between hydration and cramps
<ref name="JAMA">Fatal and Nonfatal Outcomes, Incidence of Hypertension, and Blood Pressure Changes in Relation to Urinary Sodium Excretion

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