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[[File:CancerAwareness.jpg|right|thumb|500px|Cancer is a leading cause of death in the western world, accounting for 1,600 deaths per day in the US alone.]]
The [[Ketogenic Diet]] may help with the treatment of cancer, including brain tumors<ref name="Seyfried-2011"/><ref name="Seyfried-2009"/><ref name="Seyfried-2005"/>. There are researchers who believe that the origin of cancer lies with metabolic abnormalities that lead to genetic problems rather than the genetic problems being the root cause<ref name="SeyfriedFlores2013"/>. Note that while the [[Ketogenic Diet as a Treatment| Ketogenic Diet may help with a number of diseases]], the [[Health Risks of the Ketogenic Diet| Ketogenic Diet also has some health risks]].
=How the Ketogenic Diet may help=
There may be several mechanisms behind the effect of the ketogenic diet on cancer.
* Tumor cells are unable to metabolize ketones<ref name="Maurer-2011"/>.
* Cancers promote the growth of new blood vessels, something the ketogenic diet inhibits, as Ketones are [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angiogenesis_inhibitor anti-angiogenic]<ref name="Zhou-2007"/>. This is also seen with calorie restriction, which reduces vascularity and increased apoptosis in mouse and human brain tumors<ref name="Mukherjee-2004"/>.
* Cancer cells often don't undergo natural cell death, something the ketogenic diet enhances<ref name="Skinner-2009"/>.
* Ketones may directly reduce the viability of cancer cells<ref name="Skinner-2009"/>.
There are a number of animal studies that have looked at the ketogenic diet and cancer.
* A study of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glioma Glioma] tumor cells showed that an unrestricted ketogenic diet in mice that raised ketone levels without lowering glucose levels did not change survival rates<ref name="Maurer-2011"/>. * The unrestricted diet combined with [[Omega 3]] and [[MCT]] delayed the growth of implanted gastric cancer cells in mice<ref name="Otto-2008"/>.
* The ketogenic diet may need to be combined with calorie restriction to ensure lowered glucose levels for the treatment of brain tumors<ref name="Seyfried-2008"/>. A study that compared an unrestricted standard diet, an unrestricted ketogenic diet and a restricted ketogenic diet in mice with implanted brain tumors, only the restricted ketogenic diet improved survival rates<ref name="Zhou-2007"/>.
* Drugs are being developed for cancer treatment that target metabolic pathways<ref name="Tennant-2010"/>.
* Giving a no-carbohydrate ketogenic diet to rats with grafted prostate cancer tumors resulted in a 33% smaller tumor size than controls fed a western diet<ref name="Freedland-2008"/>. In another study, rats with grafted prostate cancer tumors given 0%, 10% or 20% carbohydrate had similar survival rates<ref name="Masko-2010"/>.
* Rats with grafted prostate cancer tumors given a no-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (83% fat, 0% carbohydrate, 17% protein) had a better survival rate than those given a medium carbohydrate diet (40% fat, 43% carbohydrate, 17% protein), but their survival was similar to those given a low fat diet (12% fat, 71% carbohydrate, 17% protein)<ref name="Mavropoulos-2009"/>.
* Rats with grafted lung cancer tumors showed that a ketogenic diet improved the effectiveness of radiation and chemotherapy<ref name="AllenBhatia2013"/>.
* Rats with metastatic cancer had a 57% longer average survival time on the ketogenic diet than controls, and 78% longer when the ketogenic diet was combined with a hyperbaric oxygen therapy<ref name="TangPoff2013"/>.
=Human Case Studies=
[[File:KetogenicCancerTimeline.jpg|none|thumb|500px|Timeline of the treatment of a 65 year old woman with Glioblastoma multiforme ..]]
=Non-Ketogenic Fat Intake and Cancer=
There are a number of studies that have looked at the general relationship between fat intake and cancer.
* Fat intake in a non-ketogenic diet impacts tumor growth<ref name="Welsch-1992"/>.
* [[Omega 3]] supplementation may improve the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy treatments of cancer<ref name="Hardman-2004"/><ref name="Hardman-2002"/><ref name="Xue-2009"/><ref name="Dupertuis-2007"/>, as well as directly impacting the tumor<ref name="Gutt-2007"/><ref name="Hardman-2007"/><ref name="Kato-2002"/><ref name="Rose-1995"/><ref name="Rose-1996"/> and metastasis<ref name="Rose-1995"/><ref name="Rose-1996"/>.
* Exercise for at least 20 to 30 minutes per day. The book notes that different types of cancers require different levels of exercise to achieve a comparable effect; for instance, colon cancer requires twice as much as breast cancer.
* Feelings of helplessness ([[Internal Control Index| External Locus of Control]]) and past emotional traumas compromise our body's ability to fight cancer. For some, exercise can restore our feeling of control over our lives, but counseling may also be needed.
* Meditation, including
yoga, tai chi, etc., helps reduce stress.
==Cancer as a Metabolic Disease==
This book, "[http://www.amazon.com/Cancer-Metabolic-Disease-Management-Prevention/dp/0470584920 Cancer as a Metabolic Disease: On the Origin, Management, and Prevention of Cancer]" by Dr. Thomas Seyfried, is an expensive, technical book by one of the leading researchers in this field. It's recommended if you want to research more deeply into this topic. There is also a smaller and cheaper eBook called "[http://www.ketogenic-diet-resource.com/cancer-diet.html Fight Cancer with a Ketogenic Diet]" that is based on Seyfried's book.
<ref name="AllenBhatia2013">B. G. Allen, S. K. Bhatia, J. M. Buatti, K. E. Brandt, K. E. Lindholm, A. M. Button, L. I. Szweda, B. J. Smith, D. R. Spitz, M. A. Fath, Ketogenic Diets Enhance Oxidative Stress and Radio-Chemo-Therapy Responses in Lung Cancer Xenografts, Clinical Cancer Research, volume 19, issue 14, 2013, pages 3905–3913, ISSN [http://www.worldcat.org/issn/1078-0432 1078-0432], doi [http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-0287 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-0287]</ref>
<ref name="TangPoff2013">Chih-Hsin Tang, Angela M. Poff, Csilla Ari, Thomas N. Seyfried, Dominic P. D'Agostino, The Ketogenic Diet and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Prolong Survival in Mice with Systemic Metastatic Cancer, PLoS ONE, volume 8, issue 6, 2013, pages e65522, ISSN [http://www.worldcat.org/issn/1932-6203 1932-6203], doi [http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065522 10.1371/journal.pone.0065522]</ref>