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Glycemic Index

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Carbohydrates Glycemic Index (GI) is a measure of how much a food raises blood glucose (carbsblood sugar) are . A food with a higher Glycemic Index raises the blood sugar more than a food with a key energy source for runnerslower Glycemic Index. The way carbs are used depends Glycemic Index value is based on the state you are in. If you are in the middle of exercisea comparison with a reference food, these carbs tend to be used directly for energynormally either white bread or glucose. If you are at recovering from exercise, these carbs will go into quick access storage ([[Glycogen]]File:Glycemic Index Fellrnr.png|none|thumb|500px|A graph of blood glucose (sugar)for high and low glycemic index foods. If your [[Glycogen]] stores =Calculating the Glycemic Index=The Glycemic Index is calculated by measuring blood glucose periodically after the consumption of the food. Typically the measurements are fulltaken just before consuming the food, then at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes<ref name="Brand-MillerStockmann2008"/>. These measurements provide a blood glucose curve, and the area between the carbs will tend to be stored as fatcurve and the baseline measurement taken just before consuming the food is the "incremental Area Under the Curve" (iUAC)Some carbs are easily digested, The iUAC is compared with the fuel becoming ready iUAC for use quicklya reference food and the value given as a percentage. These 'quick carbs' are great in So a Glycemic Index of 50 means that the food raises the middle blood sugar by 50% of a run, as the [[Muscle|muscles]] reference food. Generally the portion of test food consumed contains 50 grams of carbohydrate. (The iAUC is sometimes called the Post Prandial Glycemic Response or PPGC.)=Glycemic Index and brain) will start Health=High blood glucose levels are linked to burn themmany health problems. * High Glycemic Index foods may be associated with obesity<ref name="Roberts2009"/><ref name="Brand-Miller-2002"/><ref name="Ludwig-1999"/> which constitutes a major health risk<ref name="MastersReither2013"/>. If you * Lower Glycemic Index foods are at restconsidered critical to preventing metabolic syndrome, these quick carbs can raise as it is the blood sugar levels quicklyhigh Glycemic Index foods that are risk factors, causing not carbohydrates as a 'whole <ref name="Riccardi-2000"/>. * Elevated blood glucose after consuming food (Postprandial Hyperglycemia) is an independent risk factor for heart disease and high blood sugar spike'pressure <ref name="Chiasson-2003"/>.* Postprandial Hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of stroke and heart attacks<ref name="Stettler-2006"/>. The * Postprandial Hyperglycemia is associated with the risk of death in both diabetics and the overall population, independent of age, blood pressure, cholesterol, body reacts by producing mass index, and smoking habit <ref name="Khaw-2001"/>.* Lower Glycemic Index foods may improve HDL (Healthy) Cholesterol levels<ref name="Ford-2001"/><ref name="Frost-1999"/>.* Elevated blood glucose and insulinare associated with cancers of the colon<ref name="McKeown-Eyssen-1994"/><ref name="Giovannucci-1995"/><ref name="LimburgStolzenberg-Solomon2006"/>, breast<ref name="Baglietto-2007"/>, which can overcompensate for and prostrate<ref name="Lima-2009"/><ref name="Hsing-2003"/><ref name="HsingChua2001"/>. It's been suggested that the spike and result high mortality rate from most cancers in obese subjects may be due to elevated insulin<ref name="Boyd-2003"/>* Diets with Lower Glycemic Index foods may help manage Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)<ref name="WoleverMehling2007"/>* IGT is a 'risk factor for Type 2 Diabetes, with estimates that 70% of those with IGT will eventually develop Diabetes<ref name="Nathan-2007"/>, with 5-10% succumbing each year<ref name="Bansal2015"/>.* IGT is also linked with metabolic syndrome, which is the cluster of health problems including obesity, high blood sugar crash'pressure, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, elevated triglycerides, and cardiovascular disease<ref name="Grundy-2012"/>. Neither (Note that while glucose lowering drugs may help prevent the spike nor conversion of IGT to Diabetes, but it's unclear if they will help prevent some of the crash health complications of diabetes<ref name="Grundy-2012"/>.)* IGT is good a risk factor for youliver cirrhosis<ref name="Nishida-2006"/> and survival rates for those with liver cirrhosis<ref name="García-Compeán2014"/>.=Simple and Complex Carbohydrates=So what carbs are 'easily digested'? In some literatureAt one time, quickly digested carbs are considered 'it was believed that "simple' and slow digesting carbs are 'carbohydrates" had high Glycemic Index, while "complex', but this is not a useful divisioncarbohydrates" had lower Glycemic Indexes<ref name="ND"/>. The difference between simple and complex carbohydrates is based on the chemistry of the carb carbohydrate molecule - , with small molecules like sugar are 'considered "simple' " and big molecules like starch (bread, etc) are 'considered "complex'". This division into simple and complex is unfortunately crap (biochemistry term meaning 'not useful'). The digestion of carbs is a sophisticated system that does not follow this simple division. Some simple carbs ([[Fructose]]) are very slow to digest, whereas some complex carbs ([[Maltodextrin]]maltodextrin) are very easy to digest. The actual measure of digestibility of carbs is normally called 'Glycemic Index' (GI), which is how much the blood sugar rises when a food is eaten [1]. For instance, white bread (a '"complex' " carb, GI 70) has a higher GI Glycemic Index than table sugar (a 'simple' carb, GI 60). This is because highly refined flour in bread is more easily digested than table sugar (which is half [[Fructose]]fructose).=References=<references>Understanding <ref name="Brand-MillerStockmann2008">J. C Brand-Miller, K. Stockmann, F. Atkinson, P. Petocz, G. Denyer, Glycemic index, postprandial glycemia, and the GI shape of food is important to health. Spikes the curve in blood sugar has been linked to Diabetes, heart disease and weight gain. As healthy subjects: analysis of a runnerdatabase of more than 1000 foods, high GI food is great for taking in the middle American Journal of exercise or directly afterClinical Nutrition, volume 89, issue 1, 2008, pages 97–105, ISSN [http://www.worldcat. At other timesorg/issn/0002-9165 0002-9165], it's best to avoid high GI foods. The web site doi [ 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26354]</ref><ref name="ND"> topics/glycemic-index,] has a lot of nutritional information /topics/glycemic-index, Accessed on many foods13 February 2016</ref><ref name="Nathan-2007">DM. Nathan, MB. Davidson, RA. DeFronzo, RJ. Heine, RR. Henry, R. Pratley, B. Zinman, Impaired fasting glucose and includes a 'glycemic load'impaired glucose tolerance: implications for care., Diabetes Care, volume 30, issue 3, pages 753-9, Mar 2007, which can be useful in choosing foodsdoi [ 10. The site 2337/dc07-9920], PMID [http://www.glycemicindexncbi.nlm.nih.comgov/pubmed/17327355 17327355]</ ref><ref name="Bansal2015">Nidhi Bansal, Prediabetes diagnosis and treatment: A review, World Journal of Diabetes, volume 6, issue 2, 2015, pages 296, ISSN [http://www.glycemicindexworldcat.comorg/issn/1948-9358 1948-9358] has a database of GI values for food, doi [ 10.4239/wjd.v6.i2.296]</ref><ref name="Grundy-2012">SM. Grundy, Pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk., J Am Coll Cardiol, volume 59, issue 7, pages 635-43, Feb 2012, doi [ 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.08.080], PMID [ 22322078]</ref>One <ref name="Riccardi-2000">G. Riccardi, AA. Rivellese, Dietary treatment of the factors limiting metabolic syndrome--the optimal diet., Br J Nutr, volume 83 Suppl 1, pages S143-8, Mar 2000, PMID [ 10889805]</ref><ref name="Chiasson-2003">JL. Chiasson, RG. Josse, R. Gomis, M. Hanefeld, A. Karasik, M. Laakso, Acarbose treatment and the use risk of GI cardiovascular disease and hypertension in food labeling is that it has to be experimentally tested; it can't be measured based on patients with impaired glucose tolerance: the food due to the complexities STOP-NIDDM trial., JAMA, volume 290, issue 4, pages 486-94, Jul 2003, doi [ 10.1001/jama.290.4.486], PMID [ 12876091]</ref><ref name="Stettler-2006">C. Stettler, S. Allemann, P. Jüni, CA. Cull, RR. Holman, M. Egger, S. Krähenbühl, P. Diem, Glycemic control and macrovascular disease in types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus: Meta-analysis of the human bodyrandomized trials., Am Heart J, volume 152, issue 1, pages 27-38, Jul 2006, doi [ 10.1016/j.ahj.2005.09.015], PMID [ 16824829]</ref><ref name="Khaw-2001">KT. Khaw, N. Wareham, R. Luben, S. Bingham, S. Oakes, A. Welch, N. For instance sourdough bread has a lower GI than equivalent regular bread because the acidity Day, Glycated haemoglobin, diabetes, and mortality in men in the sourdough bread slows digestionNorfolk cohort of european prospective investigation of cancer and nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk). Another example, BMJ, volume 322, issue 7277, pages 15-8, Jan 2001, PMID [http: the difference between white and most whole wheat bread is not significant// 11141143]</ref><ref name="Nishida-2006">T. Nishida, S. Tsuji, M. Tsujii, S. Arimitsu, Y. Haruna, E. Imano, M. Suzuki, T. Kanda, S. Kawano, Oral glucose tolerance test predicts prognosis of patients with liver cirrhosis., Am J Gastroenterol, volume 101, issue 1, pages 70-5, Jan 2006, doi [ 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2005.00307.x], PMID [ 16405536]</ref>Swapping high GI foods for low GI foods can be <ref name="García-Compeán2014">Diego García-Compeán, Subclinical abnormal glucose tolerance is a very useful part predictor of death in liver cirrhosis, World Journal of a Gastroenterology, volume 20, issue 22, 2014, pages 7011, ISSN [ 1007-9327], doi [ 10.3748/wjg.v20.i22.7011]</ref><ref name="WoleverMehling2007">Thomas M. S. Wolever, Christine Mehling, High-carbohydrate–low-glycaemic index dietary advice improves glucose disposition index in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, British Journal of Nutrition, volume 87, issue 05, 2007, pages 477–487, ISSN [Weight Loss 0007-1145], doi [ 10.1079/BJN2002568] program</ref><ref name="Frost-1999">G. Frost, AA. Leeds, CJ. Doré, S. Madeiros, S. Brading, A given number . Dornhorst, Glycaemic index as a determinant of calories of a serum HDL-cholesterol concentration., Lancet, volume 353, issue 9158, pages 1045-8, Mar 1999, PMID [ 10199351]</ref><ref name="Ford-2001">ES. Ford, S. Liu, Glycemic index and serum high GI food will not keep -density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration among us satiated as long as low GIadults. That means that eating a low GI food will stave off hunger for longer, causing us to eat less overallArch Intern Med, volume 161, issue 4, pages 572-6, Feb 2001, PMID [ 11252117]</ref><ref name="McKeown-Eyssen-1994">G. McKeown-Eyssen, Epidemiology of colorectal cancer revisited: are serum triglycerides and/or plasma glucose associated with risk?, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, volume 3, issue 8, pages 687-95, Dec 1994, PMID [ 7881343]</ref><ref name="Baglietto-2007">L. Baglietto, DR. English, JL. Hopper, HA. Morris, WD. Tilley, GG. Giles, Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I and binding protein-3 and the risk of breast cancer., Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, volume 16, issue 4, pages 763-8, Apr 2007, doi [ 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0960], PMID [Filehttp:Glycemic Index Simple// 17416768]</ref><ref name="LimburgStolzenberg-Solomon2006">Paul J. Limburg, Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon, Robert A.png|none|thumb|500px|Vierkant, Katherine Roberts, Thomas A graph of blood sugar for high . Sellers, Philip R. Taylor, Jarmo Virtamo, James R. Cerhan, Demetrius Albanes, Insulin, Glucose, Insulin Resistance, and Incident Colorectal Cancer in Male Smokers, Clinical Gastroenterology and low glycemic index foodsHepatology, volume 4, issue 12, 2006, pages 1514–1521, ISSN [ 15423565], doi [ 10.1016/j.cgh.2006.09.014]</ref><ref name="Giovannucci-1995">E. Giovannucci, Insulin and colon cancer., Cancer Causes Control, volume 6, issue 2, pages 164-79, Mar 1995, PMID [ 7749056]</ref><ref name="Lima-2009">GA. Lima, LL. Corrêa, R. Gabrich, LC. Miranda, MR. Gadelha, IGF-I, insulin and prostate cancer., Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol, volume 53, issue 8, pages 969-75, Nov 2009, PMID [ 20126849]</ref><ref name="Hsing-2003">AW. Hsing, YT. Gao, S. Chua, J. Deng, FZ. Stanczyk, Insulin resistance and prostate cancer risk., J Natl Cancer Inst, volume 95, issue 1, pages 67-71, Jan 2003, PMID [1 12509402] Wikipedia </ref><ref name="HsingChua2001">A. W. Hsing, S. Chua, Y.- Glycemic IndexT. Gao, E. Gentzschein, L. Chang, J. Deng, F. Z. Stanczyk, Prostate Cancer Risk and Serum Levels of Insulin and Leptin: a Population-Based Study, JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute, volume 93, issue 10, 2001, pages 783–789, ISSN [ 0027-8874 0027-8874], doi [ 10.1093/jnci/93.10.783]</ref><ref name="Boyd-2003">DB. Boyd, Insulin and cancer., Integr Cancer Ther, volume 2, issue 4, pages 315-29, Dec 2003, doi [ 10.1177/1534735403259152], PMID [ 14713323]</ref>Recommended reading<ref name="Roberts2009">Susan B. Roberts, High-glycemic Index Foods, Hunger, and Obesity: Is There a Connection?, Nutrition Reviews, volume 58, issue 6, 2009, pages 163–169, ISSN [ 00296643], doi [ 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2000.tb01855.x]</ref>'The New Glucose Revolution Complete Guide to <ref name="Brand-Miller-2002">JC. Brand-Miller, SH. Holt, DB. Pawlak, J. McMillan, Glycemic Index Values'index and obesity., Am J Clin Nutr, volume 76, issue 1, pages 281S-5S, Jul 2002, PMID [ 12081852]</ref><ref name="Ludwig-1999">DS. Ludwig, JA. Majzoub, A. Al-Zahrani, GE. Dallal, I. Blanco, SB. Roberts, High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity., Pediatrics, volume 103, issue 3, pages E26, Mar 1999, PMID [ 10049982]</1569244782 ref><ref name="MastersReither2013">Ryan K. Masters, Eric N. Reither, Daniel A. Powers, Y. Claire Yang, Andrew E. Burger, Bruce G. Link, The Impact of Obesity on US Mortality Levels: The Importance of Age and Cohort Factors in Population Estimates, American Journal of Public Health, volume 103, issue 10, 2013, pages 1895–1901, ISSN [http://www.amazonworldcat.comorg/issn/0090-0036 0090-0036], doi [ 10.2105/1569244782AJPH.2013.301379]</ref></references>

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