Magnesium

From Running tips for everyone from beginners to racing marathons and ultramarathons
Jump to: navigation, search

Magnesium deficiency is common, and may result in poor performance, diabetes, and many other health problems. Magnesium supplementation is generally safe with little risk of excessive intake, though some forms can cause GI problems. Magnesium Glycinate or Magnesium Orotate are the best forms of supplementation, but they are more expensive. Food sources of magnesium include nuts, cereals, coffee, green leafy vegetables, chocolate and tap water in hard water areas. Exercise may exacerbate magnesium deficiency, and Ultrarunning may impact magnesium levels for up to a year.

  • Deficiency. About 30-50+% of the US population are magnesium deficient, but exercise is likely to exacerbate magnesium deficiency. While this may be due to increased losses, longer duration (20+ hours) has been shown to create a far more protracted deficiency that is still present 10-11 months later.
  • Running. There is good evidence that magnesium deficiency can result in impaired running performance. This may be due to the role of magnesium in glucose metabolism, but magnesium is involved in over 300 enzymes so there could be many other mechanisms. There is good evidence that magnesium supplementation improves athletic performance in those that are deficient.
  • Heath. Magnesium is involved in over 300 enzymes and has far-reaching and profound impacts on human health.
    • Diabetes. There is excellent evidence that magnesium is related to Type 2 diabetes and that magnesium supplementation helps with the insulin resistance of diabetes and pre-diabetes.
    • Bones. There is good evidence that magnesium is critical for bone health and preventing osteoporosis, along with calcium and Vitamin D.
    • Migraine. There is reasonable evidence that magnesium can help reduce the frequency and severity of migraines in some individuals, but given the safety and cheapness, magnesium is recommended for all migraine sufferers.
    • Depression. There is limited evidence that magnesium can help with depression, but given the impact of depression combined with the low cost and safety of magnesium, supplementation is highly recommended.
    • Insomnia. There is some evidence that magnesium can be useful in the treatment of insomnia and magnesium supplementation is recommended for insomniacs.
    • Aging. There are some interesting initial indications that magnesium deficiency may play a role in the aging process, and that magnesium is important for protecting DNA.
    • Epilepsy. The research into magnesium and epilepsy is too limited to reach any conclusion. However, given the safety and cost of magnesium combined with the potentially devastating impact of epilepsy that it would be prudent to try magnesium supplementation.
    • Cramps. There is only the most tenuous of evidence that magnesium might help with cramps.
    • Other Health Implications. Magnesium deficiency has also been linked to a wide variety of other conditions including asthma, emphysema, ADHD, cardiac dysrhythmias, cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, high blood pressure.
  • Recommended Intake. The recommended intake is 400 mg for men and 320 mg for women, though this recommendation varies with age.
  • Food Sources. The most common source of magnesium tends to be cereals and tap water in hard water areas. While nuts are a good source of magnesium, it is impractical to get your RDA without excessive calorie intake. Other sources include green leafy vegetables, and chocolate.
  • Supplementation. Cheaper forms of magnesium tend to cause diarrhea, so check the ingredients list of any magnesium containing supplements. I use Magnesium Glycinate or Magnesium Orotate. Magnesium Glycinate powder will mix easily in a sports drink, but I generally use the more expensive Magnesium Orotate.
  • Deficiency testing. Testing the magnesium levels in blood is an ineffective approach, as applied to levels do not reflect overall magnesium status. Instead, a magnesium load test is required which looks at the level of magnesium absorbed when a supplement is provided.

1 Deficiency

Magnesium deficiency is a remarkably common, and may be more prevalent amongst athletes than the general population. The USDA reports show that only 32% of the US population gets their RDA of magnesium, and only 23% in Georgia, 24% in Arkansas, 26% in Tennessee, 27% in North Carolina, 28% in South Carolina, Texas, Louisiana & Mississippi[1]. However, other studies suggest that the majority of the US population does not get sufficient magnesium[2].

2 Magnesium and Running

Magnesium deficiency can result in a significant reduction in exercise performance and magnesium supplementation can improve athletic performance in those that are magnesium deficient. The benefits of magnesium supplementation in insulin resistance and diabetes may be linked to the benefits seen in athletes.

  • Triathlete given magnesium supplementation had lower blood insulin and cortisol levels, and higher blood glucose compared with controls[3].
  • Rats fed a magnesium deficient diet have a reduced exercise capacity[4].
  • Magnesium levels in the blood have been correlated with V̇O2max in athletes but not in untrained subjects[5].
  • Magnesium deficiency which can result in a significant reduction in exercise performance[6].
  • Magnesium levels in the blood of patients with type II diabetes are correlated with V̇O2max [7].
  • Magnesium deficiency increases the energy cost of exercise in postmenopausal women[8].
  • Six healthy males given 240mg/day of Potassium-magnesium-aspartate had 50% greater insurance on a bicycle ergometer compared with controls[9].
  • Subjects given 314 mg/day of magnesium oxide had improved Running Economy and increased time to exhaustion during a treadmill run[10].
  • Some studies have shown no benefit from magnesium supplementation, even in those with a low blood magnesium levels[11][12]. However, it is possible that this is because blood magnesium levels do not adequately reflect overall magnesium deficiency, and none of the studies used magnesium load test. There are also many other confounding factors[12].
  • Untrained subjects given Magnesium supplementation during strength training developed greater quadriceps strength than controls[13].
  • Subjects who are deficient in both Potassium and Magnesium who are given just potassium supplements have normalized serum potassium levels, but not normalized muscle potassium until magnesium supplementation is also given[14][15]. Therefore, magnesium may be important in maintaining normal electrolyte levels.

3 Exercise and Magnesium Loss

Exercise, especially in hot or humid conditions, can exacerbate magnesium losses, making magnesium deficiency even more likely. Protracted, strenuous exercise such as a longer ultramarathon could result in reduced magnesium levels that last for up to a year.

  • There are indications that heat acclimation reduces magnesium loss in sweat [16], but there are concerns that this reduction is an artifact of methodological errors [17][18]. (It seems reasonable to me that the reduction in magnesium in the sweat may be due to the migration of magnesium from plasma to the erythrocytes that occurs during exercise. It also seems plausible that this migration may be a way for the body to conserve magnesium during exercise.)
  • Estimates of magnesium losses in sweat with sweat rates of 2.8L/hr have been as high as 18-60mg/liter[19].
  • Generally people lose about 2mg/100ml of urine[20], or about 120 to 140 mg/day[21], but this is reduced during magnesium deficiency as the kidneys will reabsorb more[20]. Magnesium concentrations in the urine have been shown to drop during a marathon[22].
  • High Intensity Interval Training increases urinary magnesium losses by 30% on the day of exercise, as well as a temporary (2 hour) reduction in plasma magnesium levels due to a shift of the magnesium into the red blood cells[23].
  • A study of runners at the Boston marathon showed a significant drop in serum magnesium levels after the race[24]. Other studies showed a similar drop in magnesium levels after a marathon, along with a rebound to pre-price levels some hours after the finish[25][22].
  • In one study, 20 highly trained male subjects underwent 120 km/76 mile hike in 22 hours, and their magnesium levels remained depleted 3 months later[26]. A follow-up study of 2 additional groups showed that the magnesium levels remained depressed for 10 to 11 months[27]. This could have important ramifications for ultrarunners, as longer ultras could produce protracted magnesium deficit.

4 Magnesium and Health

Magnesium is required for over 300 different enzymes in the body, as well as structures like the bones[28].

4.1 Type 2 Diabetes

Magnesium supplementation may provide both protection from diabetes and help in treatment of the disease. Magnesium may also help with prediabetic insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome. Normal magnesium serum levels do not preclude the benefit from magnesium supplementation.

  • The ARIC study of 15,800 people, aged 45 to 64 between 1986 and 1990 showed that lower magnesium intake is associated with higher insulin levels, as well as higher cholesterol and blood pressure (adjusted for age, race, BMI, smoking)[29].
  • Magnesium deficiency is also associated with the metabolic syndrome[30], which is defined as two or more of high blood glucose, high blood pressure, high triglycerides or cholesterol, and obesity.
  • Studies have shown a strong link between Type 2 diabetes and magnesium intake/serum levels[31][32][33]
  • A study of 27,548 people between 1994 and 1998 showed that higher cereal fiber and magnesium intakes are associated with lower rates of diabetes risk[34].
  • A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of magnesium supplementation on subjects with type II diabetes and low serum magnesium showed improved insulin sensitivity and metabolic control[35].
  • A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of magnesium supplementation on subjects who had normal blood magnesium levels, were non-diabetic, but were overweight and had insulin resistance showed that the magnesium significantly improved insulin sensitivity and fasting blood glucose levels[36].
  • Insulin regulates magnesium levels[31], creating some possible feedback.
  • Low cellular magnesium results in insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, heart muscle and fat tissue[31].

4.2 Bone Health

Magnesium is a critical for the long-term health of the bones and magnesium deficiency is linked to osteoporosis.

  • Magnesium is a critical component of bones, making up about 1% of the structure[37].
  • Lower levels of magnesium produce more brittle bones with larger bone crystals[38].
  • Magnesium deficiency is linked to osteoporosis[39][40][41][42][43]
  • There is some evidence that magnesium supplementation helps improve bone density and to prevent fractures [42].
  • One study showed that magnesium intake was correlated with bone density in healthy older white subject, but not in black subjects[44]. (This is in keeping with the research that indicates racial differences in the effect of nutrition on bone density.)
  • Supplementation with calcium and vitamin D may also be important for maintaining healthy bone density[45].

4.3 Migraines

There is reasonable evidence for magnesium supplementation helping reduce the frequency and severity of migraines in some individuals. Personally I have seen a reduction in my migraines with Magnesium supplementation, as well as an improvement in my low light vision. I also found that the supplement MSM caused me migraines, but vitamin B2 has reduced them.

  • It has been suggested that all migraine sufferers should be treated with magnesium supplementation. This recommendation is based on the safety, cost, and effectiveness of magnesium supplementation, with an estimate that about half of all migraine sufferers would benefit[46].
  • A study showed lower levels of magnesium within the blood cells of migraine sufferers, though the serum levels were the same[47].
  • The level of magnesium within the brain of migraine sufferers is lower[48].
  • 600 mg of magnesium per day significantly reduced the number of days with migraines, reduced the consumption of migraine medication, as well as tending to reduce the duration and intensity of the migraines though this tendency was not significant[49].
  • Giving 240 mg of magnesium as twice a day had no impact on a group of migraine sufferers[50]. However, the form of magnesium was Magnesium Aspartate and Aspartate may have neurological effects of its own[51].
  • Intravenous magnesium does not appear to be effective for the acute treatment of migraine attacks[52].
  • 500 mg per day of magnesium oxide produced a significant reduction in the number and severity of migraines[53].

4.4 Depression

While trials have not been completed to show that Magnesium supplementation is an effective treatment for depression, the evidence so far is highly encouraging. Given the low cost and safety of magnesium supplementation, I believe that it is a viable approach to try.

  • A systematic review of twenty-one cross-sectional studies and three intervention trials indicated that there higher intakes of magnesium seems to be associated with lower depression symptoms[54].
  • A study of 402 students living abroad showed the relationship between magnesium and depression persists after even after adjustments for sex, age, body mass index, monthly expenses, close friends, living on campus, smoking (current and former), education, physical activity, and marital status[55].
  • There are a number of case studies of successful treatment of major depression with magnesium (typically 100-200mg per meal)[56].
  • However, the treatment of depression with magnesium is still a hypothesis, with no large scale interventions yet complete[57], though at least one is underway[58]. Of the three interventions I found:
  • Magnesium was as effective as an antidepressant (Imipramine/Tofranil) in the treatment of depressed elderly type 2 diabetics with low magnesium levels[59].
  • Magnesium did not help with premenstrual depression[60].
  • A study of 350 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass who were giving magnesium or a placebo. Postoperatively the magnesium group did better than the placebo group who had prolonged declines in short-term memory and reemergence of primitive reflexes. However, at 3 months other factors (older age, previous stroke, and lower education level) were associated with depression, not the administration of magnesium[61].

4.5 Insomnia

The limited studies that have been completed indicate that magnesium may be a useful approach to treating insomnia. Given its cheapness and safety, combined with numerous other health benefits, it seems reasonable for insomniacs to try magnesium supplementation.

  • A study of the elderly subjects showed that 500mg magnesium increased sleep time, increased sleep efficiency, reduced insomnia scores, reduced sleep onset latency, but it did not change total sleep time[62].
  • Residents in a long term care facility in Italy that suffer from insomnia were given a supplement containing magnesium that improved the quality of sleep and the quality of life[63]. The supplement contained 5 mg melatonin, 225 mg magnesium, and 11.25 mg zinc.
  • Magnesium supplementation partially reversed the age related changes in sleep EEG and sleep hormones in elderly subjects [64].
  • Intravenous magnesium changed the sleep EEG of healthy men suggesting it may be useful in controlling depressive symptoms and seizures[65]
  • Magnesium levels in newborn babies is correlated to their sleep behavior[66].
  • Rats fed a magnesium deficient diet had poor quality sleep, with increased wakefulness and reduced slow wave (deep) sleep. The rats sleep pattern was returned to normal when magnesium was reintroduced to the diet[67].
  • Most[68][69][70][71][72][73][74], but not all[75][76] studies show that Magnesium helps with post-operative pain management, including its impact on sleep.

4.6 Aging

There are promising indications that magnesium deficiency may accelerate aging. While the research is at an early stage, the results so far look promising.

  • There are suggestions in the scientific community that magnesium may play a role in the aging process[77].
  • Telomerase, an enzyme that protects DNA from degradation during cell replication[78], has a critical role in anti-aging and cancer[79].
  • A short term deficiency in magnesium has been shown to reduce Telomerase activity, and induce DNA damage in rats[80].
  • A study of isolated human cells showed that magnesium deficiency reduced their reproductive lifespan[81].
  • Magnesium is related to DNA stability and repair[82].

4.7 Epilepsy

There are some initial indications that magnesium might help with epilepsy, but there is too little evidence to reach a conclusion[83][84].

  • Animal studies on magnesium and epilepsy.
    • Animal brains that are perfused with a magnesium free solution result in seizure like activity[85][86][87].
    • Rats given a magnesium deficient diet had decreased seizure thresholds and latencies, but subsequent magnesium supplementation produced increasing seizure thresholds and latencies[88].
    • When seizures were provoked in rats (using pentylenetetrazol ), neither magnesium nor a low dose of the anticonvulsant valproate prevented the seizures, but the combination was effective[89].
    • Sheep made deficient in magnesium via dietary restriction have increased seizures[90].
    • Magnesium has anticonvulsant properties for some types of induced convulsions[91].
  • Magnesium deficiency and epilepsy.
    • A 1965 study suggested a relationship between epilepsy and magnesium levels[92].
    • There are case studies of adults and babies with low magnesium related seizures[93][94].
    • Recent studies have shown lower magnesium levels in people with epilepsy compared with controls[95][96].
    • A study of idiopathic epilepsy showed that magnesium levels fall on day one and 4 of the seizures, but not on day 7[84].
    • Low magnesium levels were seen in 100 epileptic patients compared with controls, and levels of magnesium in the cerebrospinal fluid were correlated with increased frequency, poor control and longer duration of seizures[97].
  • Magnesium supplementation for epilepsy.
    • There are case reports of infants with low magnesium that had seizures responded to magnesium supplementation[98][99][100].
    • A 18-year-old woman with refractory status epilepticus (RSE) was treated with magnesium which resulted in neurologic recovery but there was some degree of retrograde amnesia[101].
    • Infantile spasms (IS) is an age-specific and severe epileptic condition that does not normally respond to conventional antiepileptic drugs. ACTH has been used for IS, but it is associated with infection and hypertension. The use of ACTH alone and in conjunction with Magnesium showed a greater response to the combination[102].

4.8 Cramps

There is some very tenuous evidence that magnesium can help with muscle Cramps [103].

4.9 Other Impacts of Deficiency

There are studies that have linked magnesium deficiency with asthma, emphysema, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), cardiac dysrhythmias, cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, high blood pressure, and several other problems[104][29][105][106][107].

5 Recommended Intake

The recommended daily intake of Magnesium varies with age, gender as well as pregnancy/lactation[108]. Note that these values are the intakes in milligrams of the elemental Magnesium and some supplements specify the weight of the compound. For instance, 2,000mg of Magnesium Glycinate (an amino acid chelate) provides 200 mg of elemental Magnesium. Also, higher fiber intakes can reduce the absorption of magnesium[109][110], and as might high intakes of cola[111][112].

Age Male Female Pregnancy Lactation
Birth to 6 months 30 mg* 30 mg*
7–12 months 75 mg* 75 mg*
1–3 years 80 mg 80 mg
4–8 years 130 mg 130 mg
9–13 years 240 mg 240 mg
14–18 years 410 mg 360 mg 400 mg 360 mg
19–30 years 400 mg 310 mg 350 mg 310 mg
31–50 years 420 mg 320 mg 360 mg 320 mg
51+ years 420 mg 320 mg

6 Magnesium from Food

Good sources of magnesium in food include nuts, cereals, coffee, green leafy vegetables and especially chocolate. Below is a list of common food sources of magnesium[113], though in practice hard drinking water may contribute 9-27% of the US magnesium intake[114]. Note that some of these sources would require higher than normal intake. For instance, getting 400mg of Magnesium from Almonds would require 5oz, which is 810 Calories!

Food Milligrams

(mg) per serving

Percent

DV*

Almonds, dry roasted, 1 ounce 80 20
Spinach, boiled, ½ cup 78 20
Cashews, dry roasted, 1 ounce 74 19
Peanuts, oil roasted, ¼ cup 63 16
Cereal, shredded wheat, 2 large biscuits 61 15
Soymilk, plain or vanilla, 1 cup 61 15
Black beans, cooked, ½ cup 60 15
Edamame, shelled, cooked, ½ cup 50 13
Peanut butter, smooth, 2 tablespoons 49 12
Bread, whole wheat, 2 slices 46 12
Avocado, cubed, 1 cup 44 11
Potato, baked with skin, 3.5 ounces 43 11
Rice, brown, cooked, ½ cup 42 11
Yogurt, plain, low fat, 8 ounces 42 11
Breakfast cereals, fortified with 10% of the DV for magnesium 40 10
Oatmeal, instant, 1 packet 36 9
Kidney beans, canned, ½ cup 35 9
Banana, 1 medium 32 8
Salmon, Atlantic, farmed, cooked, 3 ounces 26 7
Milk, 1 cup 24–27 6–7
Halibut, cooked, 3 ounces 24 6
Raisins, ½ cup 23 6
Chicken breast, roasted, 3 ounces 22 6
Beef, ground, 90% lean, pan broiled, 3 ounces 20 5
Broccoli, chopped and cooked, ½ cup 12 3
Rice, white, cooked, ½ cup 10 3
Apple, 1 medium 9 2
Carrot, raw, 1 medium 7 2

7 Magnesium Supplementation

There are a variety of forms of magnesium supplementation, and while Magnesium Oxide is cheap and commonly used, it's poorly absorbed. The best sources are Magnesium Glycinate or Magnesium Orotate. You can get Magnesium Glycinate in pure powder form relatively cheaply, and it will mix easily in a sports drink. The taste is slightly sweet and I find it is not unpleasant. However, I generally prefer Magnesium Orotate, which is more expensive but I've never had any G.I. problems from it even at high doses. The table below lists some of the characteristics of various magnesium formulations. (From Ranade-2001[115] unless otherwise noted.)

Form Mg oxide Mg chloride Mg carbonate Mg citrate Mg gluconate Mg Glycinate (amino acid chelate) Mg Orotate Mg lactate Mg aspartate
Elemental Mg per 100mg 10mg 31g
Bioavailability Extremely poor (~4%[116], no better than placebo[117]). (effervescent form is better[118]) Good Good Good[119][117] Good Good[117] Good[116] Goo[116]
Solubility in water Extremely low (8.6mg/L) High Insoluble High[119] Moderate Good
Percentage absorbed (Mg depleted rats)[120] 48.4 48.8 43.8 50.1 56.8 47.9 46.8
Side effects Diarrhea GI Distress, Diarrhea GI Distress, Diarrhea GI Distress, Diarrhea GI Distress, Diarrhea Expensive

8 Factors that Influence Magnesium Levels

Only 30-50% of consumed magnesium is typically absorbed[121], though the absorption rate varies with the dose between 10-65%, with higher doses having lower absorption rates[122]. Other factors that influence magnesium absorption include:

  • Lactose (milk) may improve magnesium absorption[123].
  • High-phosphate diets have decreased magnesium absorption[124].
    • Note that many foods high in Fiber are also high in phosphate, but high fiber vegetables are generally magnesium rich and may offset the reduction in absorption.
  • Low protein intake (<30g/day) may exacerbate magnesium deficiency[125].
  • Vitamin D supplementation improves magnesium absorption even in those individuals with adequate levels of vitamin D[126].
  • Diuretics, including alcohol, increase magnesium losses in the urine[127].
  • Hard drinking water may contribute 9 to 27% of the magnesium intake in the US[114].

9 Risks

My research indicates that magnesium is generally a safe supplement at RDA levels. Excess magnesium is filtered by the kidneys, so overdose is normally only an issue for people with kidney issues. Magnesium supplements can cause diarrhea, and this is common in many of the compounds except for Magnesium Oratate. If you have any doubts, consult your physician.

10 Magnesium in the Body

The adult human contains about 24 g of magnesium, 60% in the skeleton, 39% intracellular (20% in skeletal muscle), and only one percent extracellular[127]. The extracellular pool of magnesium has the quickest turnover, the intracellular pool turnover is half as quick, and the skeletal pool has a very slow turnover[127].

11 Magnesium Testing

Testing for blood magnesium levels is reasonably cheap, costing $32 at walkinlabs (July 2014). However, there are concerns that testing for blood levels of magnesium will not detect the levels in the brain which may be responsible for headaches and migraines[128]. In fact, while serum magnesium levels are controlled in a narrow range, intracellular magnesium deficiency can occur with normal serum magnesium levels[127]. It has been suggested that a magnesium tolerance test may be a better indication of low magnesium[129]. Another approach is the magnesium load test, where subjects' urine magnesium levels are compared before and after magnesium supplementation; magnesium deficient subjects will retain more of the magnesium and have relatively lower urinary magnesium concentrations[130][131][132].

12 References

  1. Human Nutrition : USDA intake figures, Accessed on 9 August 2014
  2. ES. Ford, AH. Mokdad, Dietary magnesium intake in a national sample of US adults., J Nutr, volume 133, issue 9, pages 2879-82, Sep 2003, PMID 12949381
  3. SW. Golf, S. Bender, J. Grüttner, On the significance of magnesium in extreme physical stress., Cardiovasc Drugs Ther, volume 12 Suppl 2, pages 197-202, Sep 1998, PMID 9794094
  4. CL. Keen, P. Lowney, ME. Gershwin, LS. Hurley, JS. Stern, Dietary magnesium intake influences exercise capacity and hematologic parameters in rats., Metabolism, volume 36, issue 8, pages 788-93, Aug 1987, PMID 3600291
  5. HC. Lukaski, WW. Bolonchuk, LM. Klevay, DB. Milne, HH. Sandstead, Maximal oxygen consumption as related to magnesium, copper, and zinc nutriture., Am J Clin Nutr, volume 37, issue 3, pages 407-15, Mar 1983, PMID 6829484
  6. R. McDonald, CL. Keen, Iron, zinc and magnesium nutrition and athletic performance., Sports Med, volume 5, issue 3, pages 171-84, Mar 1988, PMID 3285436
  7. T. Kobayashi, Plasma and erythrocyte magnesium levels are correlated with oxygen uptake in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus., Endocr J, volume 45, issue 2, pages 277-83, Apr 1998, PMID 9700483
  8. HC. Lukaski, FH. Nielsen, Dietary magnesium depletion affects metabolic responses during submaximal exercise in postmenopausal women., J Nutr, volume 132, issue 5, pages 930-5, May 2002, PMID 11983816
  9. B. Ahlborg, LG. Ekelund, CG. Nilsson, Effect of potassium-magnesium-aspartate on the capacity for prolonged exercise in man., Acta Physiol Scand, volume 74, issue 1, pages 238-45, doi 10.1111/j.1748-1716.1968.tb04231.x, PMID 5721821
  10. Brilla, L. R. and Gunther, K. B., Effect of magnesium supplementation on exercise time to exhaustion, Med. Exerc. Nutr. Health., 1995; 4:230–233.
  11. EW. Finstad, IJ. Newhouse, HC. Lukaski, JE. Mcauliffe, CR. Stewart, The effects of magnesium supplementation on exercise performance., Med Sci Sports Exerc, volume 33, issue 3, pages 493-8, Mar 2001, PMID 11252079
  12. 12.0 12.1 IJ. Newhouse, EW. Finstad, The effects of magnesium supplementation on exercise performance., Clin J Sport Med, volume 10, issue 3, pages 195-200, Jul 2000, PMID 10959930
  13. LR. Brilla, TF. Haley, Effect of magnesium supplementation on strength training in humans., J Am Coll Nutr, volume 11, issue 3, pages 326-9, Jun 1992, PMID 1619184
  14. R. Whang, L. G. Welt, Observations In Experimental Magnesium Depletion*, Journal of Clinical Investigation, volume 42, issue 3, 1963, pages 305–313, ISSN 0021-9738, doi 10.1172/JCI104717
  15. T. Dyckner, PO. Wester, Ventricular extrasystoles and intracellular electrolytes in hypokalemic patients before and after correction of the hypokalemia., Acta Med Scand, volume 204, issue 5, pages 375-9, 1978, PMID 82374
  16. TD. Chinevere, RW. Kenefick, SN. Cheuvront, HC. Lukaski, MN. Sawka, Effect of heat acclimation on sweat minerals., Med Sci Sports Exerc, volume 40, issue 5, pages 886-91, May 2008, doi 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181641c04, PMID 18408609
  17. MR. Ely, RW. Kenefick, SN. Cheuvront, TD. Chinevere, CP. Lacher, HC. Lukaski, SJ. Montain, Surface contamination artificially elevates initial sweat mineral concentrations., J Appl Physiol (1985), volume 110, issue 6, pages 1534-40, Jun 2011, doi 10.1152/japplphysiol.01437.2010, PMID 21512152
  18. LB. Baker, JR. Stofan, HC. Lukaski, CA. Horswill, Exercise-induced trace mineral element concentration in regional versus whole-body wash-down sweat., Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, volume 21, issue 3, pages 233-9, Jun 2011, PMID 21719904
  19. DL. Costill, Sweating: its composition and effects on body fluids., Ann N Y Acad Sci, volume 301, pages 160-74, 1977, PMID 270913
  20. 20.0 20.1 FW. Heaton, The kidney and magnesium homeostasis., Ann N Y Acad Sci, volume 162, issue 2, pages 775-85, Aug 1969, PMID 5259569
  21. Jerry Kazuo Aikawa, Magnesium : its biologic significance, date 1981, publisher CRC Press, location Boca Raton, Fla., isbn 084935871X
  22. 22.0 22.1 P. Lijnen, P. Hespel, R. Fagard, R. Lysens, E. Vanden Eynde, A. Amery, Erythrocyte, plasma and urinary magnesium in men before and after a marathon., Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, volume 58, issue 3, pages 252-6, 1988, PMID 3220063
  23. PA. Deuster, E. Dolev, SB. Kyle, RA. Anderson, EB. Schoomaker, Magnesium homeostasis during high-intensity anaerobic exercise in men., J Appl Physiol (1985), volume 62, issue 2, pages 545-50, Feb 1987, PMID 3558215
  24. LI. Rose, DR. Carroll, SL. Lowe, EW. Peterson, KH. Cooper, Serum electrolyte changes after marathon running., J Appl Physiol, volume 29, issue 4, pages 449-51, Oct 1970, PMID 5459911
  25. KB. Franz, H. Rüddel, GL. Todd, TA. Dorheim, JC. Buell, RS. Eliot, Physiologic changes during a marathon, with special reference to magnesium., J Am Coll Nutr, volume 4, issue 2, pages 187-94, 1985, PMID 4019941
  26. G. Stendig-Lindberg, Y. Shapiro, Y. Epstein, E. Galun, E. Schonberger, E. Graff, WE. Wacker, Changes in serum magnesium concentration after strenuous exercise., J Am Coll Nutr, volume 6, issue 1, pages 35-40, Feb 1987, PMID 3453693
  27. G. Stendig-Lindberg, WE. Wacker, Y. Shapiro, Long term effects of peak strenuous effort on serum magnesium, lipids, and blood sugar in apparently healthy young men., Magnes Res, volume 4, issue 1, pages 59-65, Mar 1991, PMID 1863536
  28. WE. Wacker, AF. Parisi, Magnesium metabolism., N Engl J Med, volume 278, issue 12, pages 658-63, Mar 1968, doi 10.1056/NEJM196803212781205, PMID 4866353
  29. 29.0 29.1 Jing Ma, Aaron R. Folsom, Sandra L. Melnick, John H. Eckfeldt, A.Richey Sharrett, Azmi A. Nabulsi, Richard G. Hutchinson, Patricia A. Metcalf, Associations of serum and dietary magnesium with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, insulin, and carotid arterial wall thickness: The aric study, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, volume 48, issue 7, 1995, pages 927–940, ISSN 08954356, doi 10.1016/0895-4356(94)00200-A
  30. Stella Lucia Volpe, Magnesium, the Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, volume 48, issue 3, 2008, pages 293–300, ISSN 1040-8398, doi 10.1080/10408390701326235
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 Mario Barbagallo, Ligia J. Dominguez, Magnesium metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, volume 458, issue 1, 2007, pages 40–47, ISSN 00039861, doi 10.1016/j.abb.2006.05.007
  32. R. Lopez-Ridaura, W. C. Willett, E. B. Rimm, S. Liu, M. J. Stampfer, J. E. Manson, F. B. Hu, Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men and Women, Diabetes Care, volume 27, issue 1, 2004, pages 134–140, ISSN 0149-5992, doi 10.2337/diacare.27.1.134
  33. Y. Song, J. E. Manson, J. E. Buring, S. Liu, Dietary Magnesium Intake in Relation to Plasma Insulin Levels and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Women, Diabetes Care, volume 27, issue 1, 2004, pages 59–65, ISSN 0149-5992, doi 10.2337/diacare.27.1.59
  34. Matthias B. Schulze, Fiber and Magnesium Intake and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes, Archives of Internal Medicine, volume 167, issue 9, 2007, pages 956, ISSN 0003-9926, doi 10.1001/archinte.167.9.956
  35. M. Rodriguez-Moran, F. Guerrero-Romero, Oral Magnesium Supplementation Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects: A randomized double-blind controlled trial, Diabetes Care, volume 26, issue 4, 2003, pages 1147–1152, ISSN 0149-5992, doi 10.2337/diacare.26.4.1147
  36. F. C. Mooren, K. Krüger, K. Völker, S. W. Golf, M. Wadepuhl, A. Kraus, Oral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects - a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, volume 13, issue 3, 2011, pages 281–284, ISSN 14628902, doi 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2010.01332.x
  37. Hasan Aydın, Magnesium Supplementation and Bone, 2013, pages 149–157, doi 10.1007/978-1-62703-044-1_10
  38. JE. Sojka, CM. Weaver, Magnesium supplementation and osteoporosis., Nutr Rev, volume 53, issue 3, pages 71-4, Mar 1995, PMID 7770187
  39. J. Durlach, P. Bac, V. Durlach, Y. Rayssiguier, M. Bara, A. Guiet-Bara, Magnesium status and ageing: an update., Magnes Res, volume 11, issue 1, pages 25-42, Mar 1998, PMID 9595547
  40. O. Sahota, M. K. Mundey, P. San, I. M. Godber, D. J. Hosking, Vitamin D insufficiency and the blunted PTH response in established osteoporosis: the role of magnesium deficiency, Osteoporosis International, volume 17, issue 12, 2006, pages 1825–1826, ISSN 0937-941X, doi 10.1007/s00198-006-0219-6
  41. Robert K. Rude, Helen E. Gruber, Magnesium deficiency and osteoporosis: animal and human observations, The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, volume 15, issue 12, 2004, pages 710–716, ISSN 09552863, doi 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2004.08.001
  42. 42.0 42.1 J. E. Sojka, Magnesium Supplementation and Osteoporosis, Nutrition Reviews, volume 53, issue 3, 2009, pages 71–74, ISSN 00296643, doi 10.1111/j.1753-4887.1995.tb01505.x
  43. JL. Freudenheim, NE. Johnson, EL. Smith, Relationships between usual nutrient intake and bone-mineral content of women 35-65 years of age: longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis., Am J Clin Nutr, volume 44, issue 6, pages 863-76, Dec 1986, PMID 3491533
  44. KM. Ryder, RI. Shorr, AJ. Bush, SB. Kritchevsky, T. Harris, K. Stone, J. Cauley, FA. Tylavsky, Magnesium intake from food and supplements is associated with bone mineral density in healthy older white subjects., J Am Geriatr Soc, volume 53, issue 11, pages 1875-80, Nov 2005, doi 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53561.x, PMID 16274367
  45. Bess Dawson-Hughes, Susan S. Harris, Elizabeth A. Krall, Gerard E. Dallal, Effect of Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Density in Men and Women 65 Years of Age or Older, New England Journal of Medicine, volume 337, issue 10, 1997, pages 670–676, ISSN 0028-4793, doi 10.1056/NEJM199709043371003
  46. A. Mauskop, J. Varughese, Why all migraine patients should be treated with magnesium., J Neural Transm, volume 119, issue 5, pages 575-9, May 2012, doi 10.1007/s00702-012-0790-2, PMID 22426836
  47. J. Schoenen, J. Sianard-Gainko, M. Lenaerts, Blood Magnesium Levels in Migraine, Cephalalgia, volume 11, issue 2, 1991, pages 97–99, ISSN 0333-1024, doi 10.1046/j.1468-2982.1991.1102097.x
  48. N.M. Ramadan, H. Halvorson, A. Vande-Linde, Steven R. Levine, J.A. Helpern, K.M.A. Welch, Low Brain Magnesium in Migraine, Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, volume 29, issue 9, 1989, pages 590–593, ISSN 0017-8748, doi 10.1111/j.1526-4610.1989.hed2909590.x
  49. A. Peikert, C. Wilimzig, R. Kohne-Volland, Prophylaxis of Migraine with Oral Magnesium: Results from a Prospective, Multi-Center, Placebo-Controlled and Double-Blind Randomized Study, Cephalalgia, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, pages 257–263, ISSN 0333-1024, doi 10.1046/j.1468-2982.1996.1604257.x
  50. V Pfaffenrath, P Wessely, C Meyer, HR Isler, S Evers, KH Grotemeyer, Z Taneri, D Soyka, H Gobel, M Fischer, Magnesium in the prophylaxis of migraine-a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, Cephalalgia, volume 16, issue 6, 1996, pages 436–440, ISSN 0333-1024, doi 10.1046/j.1468-2982.1996.1606436.x
  51. PE. Chen, MT. Geballe, PJ. Stansfeld, AR. Johnston, H. Yuan, AL. Jacob, JP. Snyder, SF. Traynelis, DJ. Wyllie, Structural features of the glutamate binding site in recombinant NR1/NR2A N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors determined by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling., Mol Pharmacol, volume 67, issue 5, pages 1470-84, May 2005, doi 10.1124/mol.104.008185, PMID 15703381
  52. Hyun Choi, Nandita Parmar, The use of intravenous magnesium sulphate for acute migraine, European Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2013, pages 1, ISSN 0969-9546, doi 10.1097/MEJ.0b013e3283646e1b
  53. Talebi, Mahnaz, and Mohamad Goldust. "Oral Magnesium; Migraine Prophylaxis." JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association 63.2 (2013): 286-286.
  54. Marie-Laure Derom, Carmen Sayón-Orea, José María Martínez-Ortega, Miguel A. Martínez-González, Magnesium and depression: a systematic review, Nutritional Neuroscience, volume 16, issue 5, 2013, pages 191–206, ISSN 1028-415X, doi 10.1179/1476830512Y.0000000044
  55. Teymoor Yary, Sanaz Aazami, Kourosh Soleimannejad, Dietary Intake of Magnesium May Modulate Depression, Biological Trace Element Research, volume 151, issue 3, 2012, pages 324–329, ISSN 0163-4984, doi 10.1007/s12011-012-9568-5
  56. George A. Eby, Karen L. Eby, Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment, Medical Hypotheses, volume 67, issue 2, 2006, pages 362–370, ISSN 03069877, doi 10.1016/j.mehy.2006.01.047
  57. George A. Eby, Karen L. Eby, Magnesium for treatment-resistant depression: A review and hypothesis, Medical Hypotheses, volume 74, issue 4, 2010, pages 649–660, ISSN 03069877, doi 10.1016/j.mehy.2009.10.051
  58. Magnesium Sulfate Versus 5% Dextrose With Treatment Resistant Depression - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov, http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01597167, Accessed on 9 July 2014
  59. L. Barragán-Rodríguez, M. Rodríguez-Morán, F. Guerrero-Romero, Efficacy and safety of oral magnesium supplementation in the treatment of depression in the elderly with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, equivalent trial., Magnes Res, volume 21, issue 4, pages 218-23, Dec 2008, PMID 19271419
  60. AF. Walker, MC. De Souza, MF. Vickers, S. Abeyasekera, ML. Collins, LA. Trinca, Magnesium supplementation alleviates premenstrual symptoms of fluid retention., J Womens Health, volume 7, issue 9, pages 1157-65, Nov 1998, PMID 9861593
  61. SK. Bhudia, DM. Cosgrove, RI. Naugle, J. Rajeswaran, BK. Lam, E. Walton, J. Petrich, RC. Palumbo, AM. Gillinov, Magnesium as a neuroprotectant in cardiac surgery: a randomized clinical trial., J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, volume 131, issue 4, pages 853-61, Apr 2006, doi 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2005.11.018, PMID 16580444
  62. B. Abbasi, M. Kimiagar, K. Sadeghniiat, MM. Shirazi, M. Hedayati, B. Rashidkhani, The effect of magnesium supplementation on primary insomnia in elderly: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial., J Res Med Sci, volume 17, issue 12, pages 1161-9, Dec 2012, PMID 23853635
  63. Mariangela Rondanelli, Annalisa Opizzi, Francesca Monteferrario, Neldo Antoniello, Raffaele Manni, Catherine Klersy, The Effect of Melatonin, Magnesium, and Zinc on Primary Insomnia in Long-Term Care Facility Residents in Italy: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, volume 59, issue 1, 2011, pages 82–90, ISSN 00028614, doi 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03232.x
  64. K. Held, I. A. Antonijevic, H. Künzel, M. Uhr, T. C. Wetter, I. C. Golly, A. Steiger, H. Murck, Oral Mg2+ Supplementation Reverses Age-Related Neuroendocrine and Sleep EEG Changes in Humans, Pharmacopsychiatry, volume 35, issue 4, 2002, pages 135–143, ISSN 01763679, doi 10.1055/s-2002-33195
  65. H. Murck, Axel Steiger, Mg 2+ reduces ACTH secretion and enhances spindle power without changing delta power during sleep in men - possible therapeutic implications, Psychopharmacology, volume 137, issue 3, 1998, pages 247–252, ISSN 0033-3158, doi 10.1007/s002130050617
  66. D. Dralle, RH. Bödeker, Serum magnesium level and sleep behavior of newborn infants., Eur J Pediatr, volume 134, issue 3, pages 239-43, Sep 1980, PMID 7428773
  67. H. Depoortere, D. Françon, J. Llopis, Effects of a magnesium-deficient diet on sleep organization in rats., Neuropsychobiology, volume 27, issue 4, pages 237-45, 1993, doi 118988, PMID 8232845
  68. OH. Wilder-Smith, L. Arendt-Nielsen, D. Gäumann, E. Tassonyi, KR. Rifat, Sensory changes and pain after abdominal hysterectomy: a comparison of anesthetic supplementation with fentanyl versus magnesium or ketamine., Anesth Analg, volume 86, issue 1, pages 95-101, Jan 1998, PMID 9428859
  69. A. Apan, U. Buyukkocak, S. Ozcan, E. Sari, H. Basar, Postoperative magnesium sulphate infusion reduces analgesic requirements in spinal anaesthesia., Eur J Anaesthesiol, volume 21, issue 10, pages 766-9, Oct 2004, PMID 15678729
  70. H. Kara, N. Sahin, V. Ulusan, T. Aydogdu, Magnesium infusion reduces perioperative pain., Eur J Anaesthesiol, volume 19, issue 1, pages 52-6, Jan 2002, PMID 11913804
  71. Panorea D. Mavrommati, Zoe T. Gabopoulou, Charalambos N. Papadimos, Mathews G. Petsikopoulos, Vassiliki A. Vrettou, Marianthi G. Konstantinidou, Kyriaki G. Velmachou, The perioperative infusion of low doses of magnesium sulfate reduces analgesic requirements in patients undergoing abdominal hernioplasty, Acute Pain, volume 5, issue 3-4, 2004, pages 81–87, ISSN 13660071, doi 10.1016/j.acpain.2004.01.002
  72. MR. Tramer, J. Schneider, RA. Marti, K. Rifat, Role of magnesium sulfate in postoperative analgesia., Anesthesiology, volume 84, issue 2, pages 340-7, Feb 1996, PMID 8602664
  73. Herbert Koinig, Thomas Wallner, Peter Marhofer, Harald Andel, Klaus Horauf, Nikolaus Mayer, Magnesium Sulfate Reduces Intra- and Postoperative Analgesic Requirements, Anesthesia & Analgesia, volume 87, issue 1, 1998, pages 206–210, ISSN 0003-2999, doi 10.1213/00000539-199807000-00042
  74. A. Bhatia, L. Kashyap, DK. Pawar, A. Trikha, Effect of intraoperative magnesium infusion on perioperative analgesia in open cholecystectomy., J Clin Anesth, volume 16, issue 4, pages 262-5, Jun 2004, doi 10.1016/j.jclinane.2003.08.012, PMID 15261316
  75. Rosina Zarauza, Ana N. S??ez-Fern??ndez, Mar??a J. Iribarren, Francisco Carrascosa, Mar??a Adame, Isabel Fidalgo, Pablo Monedero, A Comparative Study with Oral Nifedipine, Intravenous Nimodipine, and Magnesium Sulfate in Postoperative Analgesia, Anesthesia & Analgesia, volume 91, issue 4, 2000, pages 938–943, ISSN 0003-2999, doi 10.1097/00000539-200010000-00032
  76. MR. Tramèr, CJ. Glynn, An evaluation of a single dose of magnesium to supplement analgesia after ambulatory surgery: randomized controlled trial., Anesth Analg, volume 104, issue 6, pages 1374-9, table of contents, Jun 2007, doi 10.1213/01.ane.0000263416.14948.dc, PMID 17513629
  77. William Rowe, Correcting magnesium deficiencies may prolong life, Clinical Interventions in Aging, 2012, pages 51, ISSN 1178-1998, doi 10.2147/CIA.S28768
  78. AM. Olovnikov, A theory of marginotomy. The incomplete copying of template margin in enzymic synthesis of polynucleotides and biological significance of the phenomenon., J Theor Biol, volume 41, issue 1, pages 181-90, Sep 1973, PMID 4754905
  79. J. Feng, W. Funk, S. Wang, S. Weinrich, A. Avilion, C. Chiu, R. Adams, E. Chang, R. Allsopp, J. Yu, e. al., The RNA component of human telomerase, Science, volume 269, issue 5228, 1995, pages 1236–1241, ISSN 0036-8075, doi 10.1126/science.7544491
  80. NC. Shah, GJ. Shah, Z. Li, XC. Jiang, BT. Altura, BM. Altura, Short-term magnesium deficiency downregulates telomerase, upregulates neutral sphingomyelinase and induces oxidative DNA damage in cardiovascular tissues: relevance to atherogenesis, cardiovascular diseases and aging., Int J Clin Exp Med, volume 7, issue 3, pages 497-514, 2014, PMID 24753742
  81. D. W. Killilea, B. N. Ames, Magnesium deficiency accelerates cellular senescence in cultured human fibroblasts, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, volume 105, issue 15, 2008, pages 5768–5773, ISSN 0027-8424, doi 10.1073/pnas.0712401105
  82. A. Hartwig, Role of magnesium in genomic stability., Mutat Res, volume 475, issue 1-2, pages 113-21, Apr 2001, PMID 11295157
  83. AW. Yuen, JW. Sander, Can magnesium supplementation reduce seizures in people with epilepsy? A hypothesis., Epilepsy Res, volume 100, issue 1-2, pages 152-6, Jun 2012, doi 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2012.02.004, PMID 22406257
  84. 84.0 84.1 SK. Gupta, AS. Manhas, VK. Gupta, R. Bhatt, Serum magnesium levels in idiopathic epilepsy., J Assoc Physicians India, volume 42, issue 6, pages 456-7, Jun 1994, PMID 7852227
  85. William W. Anderson, William W. Anderson, Darrell V. Lewis, H. Scott Swartzwelder, Wilkie A. Wilson, Magnesium-free medium activates seizure-like events in the rat hippocampal slice, Brain Research, volume 398, issue 1, 1986, pages 215–219, ISSN 00068993, doi 10.1016/0006-8993(86)91274-6
  86. V. Tancredi, M. Avoli, G.G.C. Hwa, Low-magnesium epilepsy in rat hippocampal slices: Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in the CA1 subfield, Neuroscience Letters, volume 89, issue 3, 1988, pages 293–298, ISSN 03043940, doi 10.1016/0304-3940(88)90542-3
  87. P. P. Quilichini, D. Diabira, C. Chiron, Y. Ben-Ari, H. Gozlan, Persistent epileptiform activity induced by low Mg2+ in intact immature brain structures, European Journal of Neuroscience, volume 16, issue 5, 2002, pages 850–860, ISSN 0953-816X, doi 10.1046/j.1460-9568.2002.02143.x
  88. A. A. Spasov, I. N. Iezhitsa, M. V. Kharitonova, M. S. Kravchenko, Effect of magnesium chloride and magnesium L-aspartate on seizure threshold in rats under conditions of dietary magnesium deficiency, Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine, volume 144, issue 2, 2007, pages 214–216, ISSN 0007-4888, doi 10.1007/s10517-007-0292-7
  89. Marwa M. Safar, Dalaal M. Abdallah, Nadia M. Arafa, Mohamed T. Abdel-Aziz, Magnesium supplementation enhances the anticonvulsant potential of valproate in pentylenetetrazol-treated rats, Brain Research, volume 1334, 2010, pages 58–64, ISSN 00068993, doi 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.03.076
  90. D. D. Leaver, G. B. Parkinson, K. M. Schneider, NEUROLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY: CORRELATIONS WITH EPILEPSY, Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, volume 14, issue 5, 1987, pages 361–370, ISSN 0305-1870, doi 10.1111/j.1440-1681.1987.tb00985.x
  91. S Decollogne, NMDA Receptor Complex Blockade by Oral Administration of Magnesium: Comparison with MK-801, Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, volume 58, issue 1, 1997, pages 261–268, ISSN 00913057, doi 10.1016/S0091-3057(96)00555-2
  92. HM. CANELAS, LM. DE ASSIS, FB. DE JORGE, DISORDERS OF MAGNESIUM METABOLISM IN EPILEPSY., J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, volume 28, pages 378-81, Aug 1965, PMID 14338128
  93. C. Fagan, D. Phelan, Severe convulsant hypomagnesaemia and short bowel syndrome., Anaesth Intensive Care, volume 29, issue 3, pages 281-3, Jun 2001, PMID 11439801
  94. P. Weisleder, J. A. Tobin, J. F. Kerrigan, J. B. Bodensteiner, Hypomagnesemic Seizures: Case Report and Presumed Pathophysiology, Journal of Child Neurology, volume 17, issue 1, 2002, pages 59–61, ISSN 0883-0738, doi 10.1177/088307380201700117
  95. OO. Oladipo, MO. Ajala, N. Okubadejo, MA. Danesi, OA. Afonja, Plasma magnesium in adult Nigerian patients with epilepsy., Niger Postgrad Med J, volume 10, issue 4, pages 234-7, Dec 2003, PMID 15045017
  96. R. Sinert, S. Zehtabchi, S. Desai, P. Peacock, B. T. Altura, B. M. Altura, Serum ionized magnesium and calcium levels in adult patients with seizures, Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation, volume 67, issue 3, 2007, pages 317–326, ISSN 0036-5513, doi 10.1080/00365510601051441
  97. AK. Sood, R. Handa, RC. Malhotra, BS. Gupta, Serum, CSF, RBC & urinary levels of magnesium & calcium in idiopathic generalised tonic clonic seizures., Indian J Med Res, volume 98, pages 152-4, Jun 1993, PMID 8225453
  98. Pongsakdi Visudhiphan, Anannit Visudtibhan, Surang Chiemchanya, Chaiyos Khongkhatithum, Neonatal Seizures and Familial Hypomagnesemia With Secondary Hypocalcemia, Pediatric Neurology, volume 33, issue 3, 2005, pages 202–205, ISSN 08878994, doi 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2005.03.009
  99. J. J. Prebble, Primary infantile hypomagnesaemia: Report of two cases, Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, volume 31, issue 1, 1995, pages 54–56, ISSN 1034-4810, doi 10.1111/j.1440-1754.1995.tb02915.x
  100. K. Unachak, O. Louthrenoo, K. Katanyuwong, Primary hypomagnesemia in Thai infants: a case report with 7 years follow-up and review of literature., J Med Assoc Thai, volume 85, issue 11, pages 1226-31, Nov 2002, PMID 12546321
  101. M. Pandey, A. Gupta, N. Baduni, H. Vijfdar, S. Sinha, A. Jain, Refractory status epilepticus--magnesium as rescue therapy., Anaesth Intensive Care, volume 38, issue 5, pages 962, Sep 2010, PMID 20865897
  102. Li-Ping Zou, Xu Wang, Chang-Hong Dong, Chun-Hong Chen, Wei Zhao, Ruo-Yan Zhao, Three-week combination treatment with ACTH + magnesium sulfate versus ACTH monotherapy for infantile spasms: A 24-week, randomized, open-label, follow-up study in China, Clinical Therapeutics, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, pages 692–700, ISSN 01492918, doi 10.1016/j.clinthera.2010.04.008
  103. MF. Bergeron, Exertional heat cramps: recovery and return to play., J Sport Rehabil, volume 16, issue 3, pages 190-6, Aug 2007, PMID 17923724
  104. Magnesium, http://umm.edu/en/health/medical/altmed/supplement/magnesium, Accessed on 9 August 2014
  105. JW. Hollifield, Magnesium depletion, diuretics, and arrhythmias., Am J Med, volume 82, issue 3A, pages 30-7, Mar 1987, PMID 2436474
  106. RM. Touyz, Role of magnesium in the pathogenesis of hypertension., Mol Aspects Med, volume 24, issue 1-3, pages 107-36, 2003, PMID 12537992
  107. MS. Seelig, HA. Heggtveit, Magnesium interrelationships in ischemic heart disease: a review., Am J Clin Nutr, volume 27, issue 1, pages 59-79, Jan 1974, PMID 4588182
  108. Institute of Medicine (IOM). Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5776
  109. R. Siener, A. Hesse, Influence of a mixed and a vegetarian diet on urinary magnesium excretion and concentration., Br J Nutr, volume 73, issue 5, pages 783-90, May 1995, PMID 7626596
  110. E. Wisker, R. Nagel, TK. Tanudjaja, W. Feldheim, Calcium, magnesium, zinc, and iron balances in young women: effects of a low-phytate barley-fiber concentrate., Am J Clin Nutr, volume 54, issue 3, pages 553-9, Sep 1991, PMID 1652199
  111. GH. Weiss, PM. Sluss, CA. Linke, Changes in urinary magnesium, citrate, and oxalate levels due to cola consumption., Urology, volume 39, issue 4, pages 331-3, Apr 1992, PMID 1557843
  112. Berrill, James, Umakant Dave, and John Doran. "Malabsorption due to excessive cola consumption." Scand J Gastroenterol 27 (1992): 819-28.
  113. Magnesium Fact Sheet for Health Professionals, http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-HealthProfessional, Accessed on 7 July 2014
  114. 114.0 114.1 JR. Marier, Magnesium content of the food supply in the modern-day world., Magnesium, volume 5, issue 1, pages 1-8, 1986, PMID 3515057
  115. VV. Ranade, JC. Somberg, Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of magnesium after administration of magnesium salts to humans., Am J Ther, volume 8, issue 5, pages 345-57, Sept 2001, PMID 11550076
  116. 116.0 116.1 116.2 M. Firoz, M. Graber, Bioavailability of US commercial magnesium preparations., Magnes Res, volume 14, issue 4, pages 257-62, Dec 2001, PMID 11794633
  117. 117.0 117.1 117.2 AF. Walker, G. Marakis, S. Christie, M. Byng, Mg citrate found more bioavailable than other Mg preparations in a randomised, double-blind study., Magnes Res, volume 16, issue 3, pages 183-91, Sep 2003, PMID 14596323
  118. R. Siener, A. Jahnen, A. Hesse, Bioavailability of magnesium from different pharmaceutical formulations., Urol Res, volume 39, issue 2, pages 123-7, Apr 2011, doi 10.1007/s00240-010-0309-y, PMID 20862466
  119. 119.0 119.1 JS. Lindberg, MM. Zobitz, JR. Poindexter, CY. Pak, Magnesium bioavailability from magnesium citrate and magnesium oxide., J Am Coll Nutr, volume 9, issue 1, pages 48-55, Feb 1990, PMID 2407766
  120. C. Coudray, M. Rambeau, C. Feillet-Coudray, E. Gueux, JC. Tressol, A. Mazur, Y. Rayssiguier, Study of magnesium bioavailability from ten organic and inorganic Mg salts in Mg-depleted rats using a stable isotope approach., Magnes Res, volume 18, issue 4, pages 215-23, Dec 2005, PMID 16548135
  121. Martha H. Stipanuk, Marie A. Caudill, Biochemical, physiological, and molecular aspects of human nutritio, date 2013, publisher Elsevier/Saunders, location St. Louis, Mo., isbn 9781437709599
  122. K D Fine, C A Santa Ana, J L Porter, J S Fordtran, Intestinal absorption of magnesium from food and supplements., Journal of Clinical Investigation, volume 88, issue 2, 1991, pages 396–402, ISSN 0021-9738, doi 10.1172/JCI115317
  123. Sareen Gropper !!author1!!, Jack Smith !!author2!!, Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism, date 1 June 2012, publisher Cengage Learning, isbn 1-285-40113-1
  124. Yoshinori Itokawa, Magnesium in health and disease: Fifth International Magnesium Symposium, August 8-12, 1988, Kyoto, Japan, 1989, publisher Libbey, isbn 978-0-86196-159-7
  125. Hunt, Sara Mcclanahan, and Frances A. Schofield. "Magnesium balance and protein intake level in adult human female." The American journal of clinical nutrition 22.3 (1969): 367-373.
  126. LL. Hardwick, MR. Jones, N. Brautbar, DB. Lee, Magnesium absorption: mechanisms and the influence of vitamin D, calcium and phosphate., J Nutr, volume 121, issue 1, pages 13-23, Jan 1991, PMID 1992050
  127. 127.0 127.1 127.2 127.3 PO. Wester, Magnesium., Am J Clin Nutr, volume 45, issue 5 Suppl, pages 1305-12, May 1987, PMID 3578120
  128. Tepper, D. (2013), Magnesium. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 53: 1533–1534. doi: 10.1111/head.12220
  129. RK. Rude, Magnesium metabolism and deficiency., Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am, volume 22, issue 2, pages 377-95, Jun 1993, PMID 8325293
  130. L. Gullestad, LO. Dolva, A. Waage, D. Falch, H. Fagerthun, J. Kjekshus, Magnesium deficiency diagnosed by an intravenous loading test., Scand J Clin Lab Invest, volume 52, issue 4, pages 245-53, Jun 1992, PMID 1439510
  131. CN. Holm, JM. Jepsen, G. Sjøgaard, I. Hessov, A magnesium load test in the diagnosis of magnesium deficiency., Hum Nutr Clin Nutr, volume 41, issue 4, pages 301-6, Jul 1987, PMID 3623992
  132. L. Gullestad, K. Midtvedt, LO. Dolva, J. Norseth, J. Kjekshus, The magnesium loading test: reference values in healthy subjects., Scand J Clin Lab Invest, volume 54, issue 1, pages 23-31, Feb 1994, PMID 8171268